The society that has passed through the longest formation in the human history is a nomadic society. For thousands of years, nations and peoples who lived to the east of the Great Wall and to the west to the Mediterranean Sea in the vast steppes of Eurasian led a nomadic life which was caused by the need to adapt to the natural environment. More specifically the great steppe has forced the people living there to lead the special nomadic way of life. The people who lived a quiet life in the warm and wide lands by way of hunting have preferred to build for themselves dwellings out of stones and wood, to tame wild animals, to pasture, to turn up the soil and set seeds, to open up mines, to melt iron and copper and to weave. When the need arose they began to use natural resources. Traditionally the cohabiting races and tribes existed harmoniously starting from the known things to faiths -beliefs leading a nomadic living.

Nomadism is a historically formed economic and social system. Nomadism has been the basis of pastoral cattle farming in the Eurasian and Afro-Asian territory for a long time. The historians define the following periods of nomadism — Ancient, Classic and Modern. The Saka, Uisun, Qangly, Huns and other tribes belonged to the ancient nomads of the great steppe. In the Turkic times, the Mongolian Classic period of Nomadism contributed much to world development. The system of cattle breeding represented a type of ordered and well-developed economy, having improved household particularities. The cattle breeding that became a main production tool for the nomads living in the Eurasian steppes gave not only the food, but its products were used also for exchange. By developing the methods of cattle husbandry, nomadism improved continuously beginning from the daily used household tools to moral and ethical notions.

One of the main problems among the nomads was a lack of national unity. In the Eurasian market society, possession of property and civil relations are Of fundamental importance. But for the nomads, blood and intertribal relations are much more valuable. The notion «Fathers’ land» is for the nomads a sacred guarantee of unity of the native shore and recognition of the sacrosanctity of the land of neighboring peoples. As a result of understanding time and space, moving from one place to another, and stationing in a suitable climatic zone, the nomads could put cultural and climatic characteristics to good use. For example, from ancient times in Kazakhstan they used June pasture field. The wooded lands and steppes of the southeast mountains were used for summer grazing due to abundant rain. The eastern and central regions were used for winter grazings. And spring and autumn pasture fields were adjoining summer and winter fields. According to the established traditions the June pasture fields were divided among the families and all other lands were used together. Understanding the fierce nature of the steppe, forecasting its internal regularities are the main aspects of the nomadic culture. The dry steppe may be developed only by a herder, but to farm its territory with success, one should continuously improve his mastery and this requires special human and intellectual qualities» — says the English historian A. J. Toynbee (1889-1975). Cattle breeding is more complex compared to other forms of agriculture because a farmer uses the natural blessings directly, and the nomads use the cattle as a mechanism that processes the plants of nature. People who do not possess intelligence, kindness, self-control and good intuition could not live on the fierce steppe. The nomadic culture fulfills the function of an intermediary, expressing tender relations between a man and nature. The nomadic society existed in the form of- nomadic/ half-nomadic cattle breeding which had a great influence on their world-view. An integral part of this world view was based on such concepts as «world» and «man». This world view has generated various traditions, customs, and ideas about the development of nature. The foundational concepts of the ancient nomads were blue sky, endless world and the all powerful Creator of the blue sky — the Sun in the sky. Together, the nomadic life-style, four species of animal stock and the Earth Mother formed material well-being. Nomads understood the first astronomic notions of space.

The nomadic way of life has implemented specific requirements for child-raising. The rigors of life on the steppe developed people who were spiritually rich and concerned with their community. Nomadic life makes nomads good at singing and dancing and having imaginative qualities. The history of nomads, lasting for several centuries, shows their coordination, their great-heartedness, and their life dreams. The spiritual life and world viewrs of the nomads, which have been greatly undervalued, have been recognized as random and systemless. Nomads have been called «primitive» and «savages». However, the evidence shows that nomadism has played an important role in history. The economic system, national attributes, and public administration found in nomadism have been proven just as good as those of great world civilizations [Kazakh National Encyclopedia — Vol. 5, pages 62, 63].

Some believe that nomads could not reach an intensive development of culture and science as developed countries. However, the Historical Encyclopedia says:»When the nations of the New and Old World had big changes, in the steppe, the life-style of the nomads underwent changes slowly» [Markov G. E.]. The requirements of industrialization changed the conditions of the tribes. Thus the small tribes have grown into strong communities of tribes. During this long historical period up to development of fire weapons, the world of the nomads became one of the most strong and powerful force in the human history. The Kazakh National Encyclopedia states the following about formation of the Kazakh people;»ln a thousand years BC, the ancient tribes that lived within the territory of Kazakhstan moved to the nomadic life style. Several unions of tribes were formed. The largest among them is Saka. They inhabited the South-East beginning from the shores of Syr Darya, borderlands of Karatau, Talas to the Tien Shan mountains. The tribes inhabiting the shores of Aral, Syr Darya, along Amur Darya have formed into the union — Massagets. The Saka lived opposite the Scythians and populated north of the Black Sea and alongside Dnepr and the Savromats. The Kazakh people’s culture stems mostly from the Saka. Archeology (burying places, treasures etc.) show the history of the Saka and their material and spiritual culture. On the southern lands of modern Kazakhstan, alongside the rivers Syr Darya, Talas and Chu, new unions of the combined tribes have occurred based on the ancient Saka. These tribes include the Huns, Uisuns, Qangly, and Sarmatians. They became a strong state and left a definite imprint in the history, culture, and art of Central Asia. They lived before the 5lh century AD and cooperated with many nations. Apart from the ancient local Saka, the Hun, Uisun, and Qangly were special founding figures in the formation of the nomadic race. This long ethnic process began in the first half of the first century BC. It was able to fully form only in the 5h and 6 centuries AD. Many tribes that became a background of the Kazakh nation entered into the Turkic Khanate in 552 and came to be known under such different names as Chumygun, Day, Irki Chuban (Shumanakh), Dulu. «Ten tribes» were an ethnic and political foundation of the Western Turkic Khaganate being founded in the year 603. They held lands of the ancient Uisun located between the roots of Karatau and Dzungarian Basin. In the east of the river Chu the lands were owned by the five tribes Dulu, in the west — by the five tribes Nushebi. Instead of the Turkic Khanate in (704-756) the Turgesh Khanate was founded, and then (756-940) — the Karluk Khanate and they ruled over the said tribes. At the times of the governance of these states, the tribes moved to sedentary life and the agriculture of farming was developed. The cities flourished and trade revived. During that period the Karluks, Shigils, Yagmals, Adgul lived alongside Zhetysu and Talas, and in the Central Kazakhstan and, alongside Syr Darya, the Oghuz and Qypchak ruled over.»Some of these groups of the oghuz have influenced the emergence of the kind of the Kazakh people. «Early states of the Naimans, Kereis, Jalairs, though they were in the east of the Central Asia, in the territory of Mongolia which borders Kazakhstan, had a direct influence on the nomadic history. After the defeat of the Mongols the Naimans and Kereis, the Jalairs began to gradually join the forming numerous Turkic people or rather the Kazakh people. Because Naimans expanded along the banks of the Syr Darya in Mongol empire, it lays an important foundation for formation of Kazakh people. The scope of Kereis expanded along the Volga River. After that they join the Kazakh people. In the northern and north-eastern regions of Kazakhstan lived the Qypchak engaged in nomadic cattle breeding. The Qypchak ruled over in the 11th century in the vast Kazakh steppes and in the southern Russian steppes and in the I2h century settled to the river Dnepr. The Qypchak mainly joined the Kazakh people. Combining of the Turkic tribes living in the steppe regions of Kazakhstan in the Ilth-I2h centuries, developing of the economic and cultural relations with the regions developing agriculture in a settled environment has become an important period in the formation of the Kazakh nation. On the way of the formation of the nomads as a single nation an important imprint was left by the Mongolian invasion which began in the 13 century. After the death of Genghis Khan in the mid — 13th century most of the land of the nomads passed under domination of his eldest son Jochi Khan, only the shores of Zhetysu belonged to his second son Chagatai Khan. A small part of the north-eastern part of Kazakhstan was transferred to his third son Ogodei Khan. After a short period of time the Mongols were mixed with the locals, especially with Qypchak, and fully lost the characteristics inherent in them. After the period of the Mongol empire breakdown the development of the political life of the people of this region passed through isolation of several government structures that were formed on the local ethnic basis: White Horde (Ak Horde), Mongolstan, Khanate Abuikhair (State of Uzbek nomads), Nogai Horde. The continuing public fragmentation of the people of Kazakhstan in the 14 and early 15th century led to the incorporation of three Juzes, or tribes.» In the recent troubled times,»in order to unite the political fragmented groups of Kazakh tribes and clans, the opportunity, for the first time, existed for them to become a part of the state. The creation of the Kazakh Khanate gave a real opportunity to solve this issue.

The foundation of the Kazakh Khanate was a lawful result of the socio-economical and ethno-political developments which began on the vast lands of the Eastern Deshti Qypchak, Zhetysu and South Kazakhstan. In the mid-l5 century after the death of Abuikhair Khan his servant union of the nomadic tribes split into two Khanate «Kazakh» and «Uzbek.» Kazakh Khanate fully inherited the Eastern edge of Ak Orda-sphere of jurisdiction of Jochi Khan, settled between the Urals and the Irtysh, Tyumen and Syr Darya. In the late 15 ‘ and early 16 centuries, they were joined by the Great Juz (Uisun, Dulat). From that time the Kazakh state had a certain land, its people spoke the same language, kept similar household. There were similar traditions and customs that were close to each other. In the 15,h-16,h centuries in connection with the breakdown of the Nogay, Siberian and Mongolian Khanate, following major political events in the land of Kazakhstan, many ethnic groups and tribes have joined the Kazakh Khanate. In the 16th century there was the end of the process of of the Kazakh society division into three Juzes. The Great Juz or Uisun clans included — the Sary-Uisyn, Dulat, Alban, Suan, Jalair. Shaprashty, Qangly and Shanyshqyly, Oshaqty, Ysty, Sergeli; the Middle Juz included the Argyn, Kerei, Naiman, Waq, Qonyrat, Qypchak, Taraqty; the Junior Juz — (the group of the Union Alshyn) such as Jetyru, Alimuli and Baiuli. Many of Junior Juz had been Nogay since the times of the Golden Horde. Also, the races related to them are found in the lower mouth of the Volga, the North Caucasus, the Crimea (Zhagalbayli, Berish, Sherkesh, Malkar and others).

In the 16 century under the rule of Khasym Khan the number of people of the Kazakh Khanate reached  1  million. The ethnic territory has expanded. Akhnazar, Taukel Khan, in the 17th century Esim Khan, in the late 17 century — early 18 century Tauke Khan combined three Kazakh juzes (Kazakh Khanate). The Dzhungar Khanate which was founded in 1635 conducted an aggressive policy against the Kazakhs. In the first quarter of the 18th century they organized several major campaigns. The largest «period of escapes of the most Kazakh people from their homes because of the attacks» in the years 1723-1725 brought big difficulties to the Kazakh people. After the death of Tauke Khan the isolation, estrangement of three Kazakh juzes led to a weakening of the Kazakh Khanate.

The Dzhungars shifted one part of the Kazakhs from the ethnic territory, complete deprivation of livestock and pastures, the economic crisis has discredited the Khans, increased confusion and slander» [Kazakh National Encyclopedia — Vol. 5, pages 399, 400, 401]. At the time when the unity of the Kazakh people broke down Russia firstly involved the Junior Juz under the rule of Abulkhair Khan. In the year 1734 it took possession of one part of the Middle Juz. In the 2 part of the 19 century it joined the Empire the whole of Kazakhstan. There were a lot of national liberation uprisings against the colonial policy of Russia. They were headed by Syrym Datuli, Isatay Taymanuli, Kenesary Kasymuli, Zhankozha Nurmukhameduli and others. On 21-28 July 1917 on the eve of the October Revolution in Orenburg city hold first all Kazakh Congress, in fact, it was the Congress of the «Alash». A. Bokeikhan, M. Tynyshbay, M. Dulatuli, A. Baytursynuli, Zh. Dosmukhameduli, H. Dosmukhameduli, M. Zhumabayuli and others joined the party Alash. In 1918, the city of Kokand the Kazakh members of intelligentsia opened the fourth Muslim Congress and founded the Turkestan autonomy. Mukametzhan Tynyshbay became the first prime minister, Mustafa Shokai — president. Then Alikhan Bokeikhan became president. At the initiative of the Kazakh intelligentsia the Kazakhs enthusiastically started foundation of a Kazakh country. But the Alash party continued the work could not stay away from the Soviet exile that covered the whole Russia and Middle Asia as a fire.

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